MICROBIOLOGY
by Dennis Molina

    No one really knows how exactly life got started in Corona, but we can only assume how the first organisms came to life.  In the early stages, Corona was simply made up of rock particles revolving around an orbit.  As years pass, the particles where packed together by the powerful gravitational pull that Corona build up throught the years.  Eventually as years added the more the planet became to take shape and the beginning orgamisms were taking their first peek on this land. 

    The first types of cells that evolved from planet Corona are known as nanites and tenites, which appeared roughly around 3 billion and 1 billion years ago respectively.  This cells can be defined according the need of energy they require.   Autonites are "self feeders" that use light or chemical energy to make food.  In contrast, heteronites "other feeders" obtain energy from other autonites or heteronites.

    Nanites are molecules surrounded by a membrane and a cell wall.   Some of these nanites come in different shapes: coccu (round), baccelli (rods) and spirali or spiroshell (helical cells).  Some nanite cells have external whip-like flagella for locomotion or hair like pilli for adhesion.  Nanites lived in different enviroments such as in very high temperatures located near volcanic lava flow, hot spring run-off channels, geysers and thermal vents and also at very high concentrations of salt (NaCl) found perhaps in evaporating ponds of seawater.  At high temperatures their membrane and enzyme are stable and with varying temperatures of ( 80 degrees to 100 degrees ) it meets the requirement for cell growth.  In the salt concentration environment at  low salt concentration the cell with not grow.   Their cell walls, ribosomes and enzymes are stabilized by Na+.  The high concentration of NaCl in their environment limits the availability of O2 for respiration so they are able to supplement their energy capacity by absorbing light for the synthesis of sugars.  With volcanism, asteroids and comets landing on Corona in the past, it made it possible for different chemicals to react with each other creating a chemically rich environment for different organisms to grow and replicate eachother to form the same type of cells and also new.  This new cells were called tenites, although tenites evolved from nanites they have distinctive features that makes them different from nanites.  For example they are shaped differently than the nanites, these tenites come only in: coccusphe (spherical).  Our basic tenite cell will include the following: a plasma membrane, cytoplasm which is the semifluid, cytoskeleton which gives the cell its shape and also allows its motion through the medium and presense of characteristic membrane enclosed subcellular organelles.  In contrast to nanites, tenites live in different environments located near creeks and lakes having high acidic concentration due to chemical build up.  Most of these tenites can be found in   moderate temperatures ( 60 degrees to 75 degrees ) which meets the requirement for cell growth.  Although different from the nanites it will only reproduce to create the same cell. 

The Cell Cycle.

cellcycl.gif (3049 bytes)

The cell cycle is an ordered set of events, culminating in cell growth and division into two daughter cells. These stages, pictured to the right, are G1-S-G2-M. The G1 stage stands for "GAP 1". The S stage stands for "Synthesis". This is the stage when DNA replication occurs. The G2 stage stands for "GAP 2". The M stage stands for "mitosis", and is when nuclear(chromosomes separate) and cytoplasmic (cytokinesis) division occur.

 

 

 

Process of Mitosis:

Mitosis is nuclear division, and produces two identical daughter cells during prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase.  Interphase is often included in discussions of mitosis, but interphase is technically not part of mitosis, but rather encompasses stages G1, S, and G2 of the cell cycle.

Interphase

interpha.gif (4855 bytes)The cell is engaged in metabolic activity and performing its preparedness  for mitosis. Chromosomes are not clearly discerned in the nucleus, although a dark spot called the nucleolus may be visible.

 

Prophase

prophase.gif (4396 bytes)Chromatin in the nucleus begins to condense and becomes visible in the light microscope as chromosomes.  The nucleolus disappears. Centrioles begin moving to opposite ends of the cell and fibers extend from the centromeres. Some fibers cross the cell to form the mitotic spindle.

 

Prometaphase

prometap.gif (4584 bytes)The nuclear membrane dissolves, marking the beginning of prometaphase. Proteins attach to the centromeres creating the kinetochores. Microtubules attach at the kinetochores and the chromosomes begin moving.

 

Metaphase

metaphas.gif (4629 bytes)Spindle fibers align the chromosomes along the middle of the cell nucleus. This line is referred to as the metaphase plate.This organization helps to ensure that in the next phase, when the chromosomes are separated, each new nucleus will receive one copy of each chromosome.

 

Anaphase

anaphase.gif (4203 bytes)The paired chromosomes separate at the kinetochores and move to opposite sides of the cell. Motion results from a combination of kinetochore movement along the spindle microtubules and through the physical interaction of polarmicrotubules.

 

Telophase

telophas.gif (4271 bytes)Chromatids arrive at opposite poles of cell, and new membranes form around the daughter nuclei. The chromosomes disperse and are no longer visible under the light microscope. The spindle fibers disperse, and cytokinesis or the partitioning of the cell may also begin during this stage.

 

Cytokinesis

cytokine.gif (3868 bytes)Cytokinesis results when a fiber ring composed of a protein called actin around the center of the cell contract spinching the cell into two daughter cells, each with one nucleus.



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