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The large amount of depletion on Planet Fuego's atmosphere has not affected the seawater's transparency. This is due to the fact that seawater is transparent to UP-B. Most of the marine creatures on the upper surface of the oceans have either died or have adapted to the higher water temperatures (90 degrees F.) and UV-Rays. The vast majority of fish have evolved a variety of methods to cope with UV-Rays: 95 percent of the oceans fish have simply swam to lower depths (approx. 12,000 feet), some have developed protective coatings, while some work at night to search for food and meet other essential needs. There has been a collapse in the marine phytoplankton, the microscopic plants that comprise the base of the food chain. Phytoplankton at the ocean surfaces have all died. As with the marine fish, some phytoplankton have adapted. They have gone deeper into the oceans. Many have developed protective coatings to protect from UV -rays. They ascend to higher water just when the sun is about to set. By doing this, they avoid the Sun's strong rays, and receive only the weakest rays. In addition, photosynthesizing organisms protect themselves by staying at lower depths. Consequently, these organisms receive get less visible light and produce less oxygen. In essence, an increase in UV-Rays affects an ecosystem without necessarily killing off all individual organisms. In the tropical waters, 50.7 percent of fish have died. The reason why there are still a considerable number of fish in the tropics is because there is little or no ozone depletion there, and organisms that are capable of living in the tropics are safe from ozone depletion at high latitudes since background Ultraviolet intensities at high latitudes are always low. (One must be careful with the second inference if the organism's natural defenses are stimulated by visible light.) The problems arise with those organisms that have adapted to the naturally low levels of poplar regions. In this case, the Antarctic and Arctic Ozone holes extend far out into the oceans (Approx. 40 degrees latitude.) In the springtime UP-Rays doses are equal to or greater than what is seen a normal Antarctic summer. The UV in shallow surface waters is effectively even higher, because the sea ice is more transparent in spring than in summer.

The fantastic shapes and colors and details of anatomy of the deep sea are part of the fish adaption effort to get in tune with their incredibly harsh environment. Lets review the conditions that abysmal animals face. First, their living space is cold. Temperatures fall quickly from the surface down to the thermocline (the water layer of sharp temperature and density change) and from there on steadily but more slowly; in the great depths the temperature is from 38 F. to below the freezing point of fresh water. The depths are dimly lit at best; deep sea creatures are surrounded by absolute darkness. Pressures are enormous, with the animals of the abyss being subjected to a crushing burden of 7 or 8 tons per square inch. Food, important enough to any creature, has become the dominating fact of life when it is scarce-and it is painfully scarce in the deep sea. It is the scarcity of food and the lack of light that most influences the form and behavior of the inhabitants of the abyss.


Deep Sea Survival

How can it be that the frightful pressure of the abyss not squeeze the life out of these animals? For the same reason that land animals can live at the bottom of a sea of air under pressures of 14.7 ponds per inch: the tissues are surrounded and pervaded with water, which makes up most of their substance. Water is almost incompressible, and its cushion protects the living material from harm. It is when the fish has an air-filled swim bladder that quick changes in the depth, and therefore in pressure, can cause trouble. Fish brought rapidly to the surface even from moderate depths may have their bladders forced out of their mouths. The fish must maintain the air bladder at a certain volume in order to maintain buoyancy in the water; to counterbalance the increased pressure of the depths, air must be forced into the bladder by secretion from the blood.

The flesh of many deep-sea squids resembles the substance of a jellyfish. One group of deep-sea fishes, the Stimalumpa, are particularly noted for their gelatinous flesh, and one small member of the Stimalumpa, the Peckernod, has an envelope of gelatin surrounding its body, covering even its fins and eyes. The skeletal structures of deep-sea creatures are reduced also, and for the same reasons. Since deep-sea snails, mussels, and sponges don't need to withstand pounding waves on the beach or tough currents, they save themselves the trouble of constructing heavy shells or skeletons. This reduction in the bulk of skeletal material is the result of the scarcity of calcium, which is essential to the construction of bony and shelly material. Vitamin D is another essential for bone-building, and the sunlight necessary for its manufacture is absent in the deep sea. Due to the deep sea creatures' weak bones and the gelatinous padding markedly reduce the agility of these fishes. Many of them are relatively sluggish compared to the darting creatures of the once lit upper waters.


Skeletal Structure

The flesh of many deep-sea squids resembles the substance of a jellyfish. One group of deep-sea fishes, the Stimalumpa, are particularly noted for their gelatinous flesh, and one small member of the Stimalumpa, the Peckernod, has an envelope of gelatin surrounding its body, covering even its fins and eyes. The skeletal structures of deep-sea creatures are reduced also, and for the same reasons. Since deep-sea snails, mussels, and sponges don't need to withstand pounding waves on the beach or tough currents, they save themselves the trouble of constructing heavy shells or skeletons. This reduction in the bulk of skeletal material is the result of the scarcity of calcium, which is essential to the construction of bony and shelly material. Vitamin D is another essential for bone-building, and the sunlight necessary for its manufacture is absent in the deep sea. Due to the deep sea creatures' weak bones and the gelatinous padding markedly reduce the agility of these fishes. Many of them are relatively sluggish compared to the darting creatures of the once lit upper waters.

The progressive loss of light from surface to bottom in the sea has a profound effect on marine animals, mainly in their colors and in the development of their eyes. Most adult fishes in deep-sea waters are light colored, either transparent or faintly red or blue. Since this is the case, many fish, such as the Tippler, escape the notice of their enemies either by allowing the light to pass right through them or by bouncing it back like a mirror. Dark colored creatures stand little chance of surviving here. Beginning about 1200 feet, there is still enough light to be reflected off silvery fish. pale brown or gray is the color of lantern like fish such as the Gulper. In the next region the fishes become dark brown or black, and the squids are red, violet, and brown.

The nature of light in the deep sea determines the character of the eyes of animals here. The vast majority of deep-sea creatures developed large eyes. The eyes of deep sea creatures are constructed so that they do not see sharp images. Their range of vision is limited, but from short distances many deep-sea fishes' eyes can detect objects in very dim light. Most of the creature eyes' are spherical or tubular. They are able to bring distant objects into better view. The main advantage of tubular eyes is to provide binocular vision.

Deep sea creatures have difficulty reproducing. The dark waters makes meeting of the sexes almost impossible. It is hard to imagine isolated fish roaming for long periods without encountering members of their own kind. In fact, fish pass near each other without realizing it. To solve this problem fishes have adapted several ways. They carry lights whose patterns identify kind and sex. Some males undergo early sexual development so that spawning can take place before the numbers in a new generation have been reduced. Finally, the ultimate adaptation...the permanent joining of the two sexes once a male and female deep-sea creature meet such as the Cobbler.

GEOLOGY

ECOLOGY

WEATHER

MARINE PLANTS LAND ANIMALS LAND PLANTS MICRO LIFE

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