World Builders™
World Builders™
Session Eight   --  Links   
Session Eight   --  Links   

    Land Plants
    Land Plants

Early Land Plants   Fungi  

Flowering Plants  

Plant Adaptation Plant Structures  
Early Land Plants

BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY: NONVASCULAR PLANTS AND NONSEED VASCULAR PLANTS is an excellent overview of the characteristics of plants that developed on land on our planet.  Read this site first to get the "Big Picture".

Fun with Lichens. Learn some basic things about lichens and visit Lichen Land! Very good for beginners and teachers.

Beautiful pictures of lichens and information about them. Enjoy images
but do not copy.

Bryophytes (i.e., mosses, liverworts and hornworts.) Primitive plants. A short description with comments gives an overview.

Beautiful photos of bryophytes. which include mosses, liverworts, and hornworts. Click on the silver arrows to see more!

The Mosses of Wales. Simple information, gorgeous pictures. Photo Gallery of pictures with comments. Explore this site!

A History of Palaeozoic Forests by Hans Kerp. Very nice introduction accessible to the general reader.

A History of Green Plants: Paleozoic Plants Short descriptions of the development of the earliest land plants with helpful diagrams and pictures.  Yhis is an excellent site with a lot of information about the evolution of life on earth.

Brief Introduction to Ferns by the American Fern Society. Go down the opening page to Learn More About Ferns or Fern Basics and click.   This page gives an excellent yet brief description of the characteristics of ferns and their interesting mode of reproduction. As ferns were one of the earliest land plants, I would
strongly urge you to read this page as you plan for your bog and land plants.  Go down to the diagram about fern reproduction.

The Virtual Cell:  Explore a Plant Cell on this interactive web site.

Age of Reptiles Mural from the Yale Peabody Museum of Natural History. Starting from the right hand side of the mural, at the Carboniferous and Devonian ages, work through this easy-to-understand mural and follow the progress of prehistoric plants from bearing spores to producing flowers. Note also the animals that appear in this story. Click on the boxed areas in the mural to learn more.

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Fungi - Not Plants, but Important Helpers in the Soil

Introduction to the Kingdom of the Fungi   Nice images!

BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY: FUNGI:  Visit this interesting site for an introduction to the Fungi

Agaricales of the Hawaiian Islands:  A wonderful collection of beautiful photographs of fungi.  You will be amazed at the colors of some of 
the mushrooms!  Click on the links and enjoy.  Detritivores can be beautiful!

Forest Fungi of New Zealand. Gorgeous pictures, excellent, clear information about fungi, lichens, and slime molds.

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Angiosperms The Flowering Plants

Dinosaur Time Line: Diagram about the life forms on earth at different geological ages.

Evolution of Plant and Animal Life: One page listing of life forms abundant during the Cretaceous period.

Flower Power: read what Dr Jack Horner has to say about the appearance of flowering plants and how these plants changed their ecosystems. Page is suitable for all ages,

A Taste for Flowers Helped Beetles Conquer the World A New York Times article examines the relationship between plants and plant eaters, concentrating especially on beetles.

The Age of Reptiles  from the Yale Peabody Museum of Natural History. This page shows a mural about prehistoric life forms. This mural starts with the Age of Fishes (the Devonian) through the Carboniferous, Permian, Triassic, and Jurassic and Cretaceous. Click on the panels to learn more.  Commentary is clear and accessible for the general reader. In addition, the mural has clickable "hot spots" which will lead to other pages with commentary on the life form illustrated. Teachers could use this mural as the basis for a whole unit on the history of life forms: check out all the pages! A large mural depicting all the scenes may be purchased from the web site.

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Plant Adaptations
Plant Evolution: Adaptation or Historical Accident? by Professor Karl Niklas. This is an amazing paper, and easy to read. Professor Niklas has done computer simulations to determine how efficiently different shapes and sizes of plants can do what plants must do: gather energy from light, take up water, support their own structures, and reproduce. See what the plants on your world are likely to look like! This talk was given to high school teachers. The material is presented simply and is accessible to the general reader. Good graphs and diagrams support the text.

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Plant Structure

Master Gardener Training in Botany   A very nice series of pages from the Ohio State University Extension. The first part is about the different parts of plants and written in simple language. It gives good information supported by helpful pictures and has extra enrichment material and short quizzes. Check this out! Your students could probably use it in independent assignments.

The Facts of the Case  Join Detective Plantenstein as he learns about the parts of the flower. Nicely done, interesting, and full of clearly explained simple information. Other cases investigate plant structure, seed germination, and the role of the soil in plant growth.

Plants and Their Structure This site has excellent diagrams and pictures. I don't expect you to learn all the vocabulary, just to get a general idea of how a plant is structured and what the different structures look like at the cellular level.

Play a game to assemble the parts of a flower. The picture fills with color as you learn about the parts.

In the Leaves: Click on the leafy part of the tree to be sent to information about the leaves and what they do. Good basic information.

ETH Plant Root Engineering These people are serious about plant roots. They provide information which is easy to understand and which has links to provide material in more depth. There are good diagrams and photographs.

Annual Growth Rings Good simple explanation and graphics.

Here's an interesting page about tree rings and how people can use them to find out the age of the tree. Be sure to look at the diagram at the bottom of the page.

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Copyright © 1999, 2005.   Elizabeth Anne Viau and her licensors.  All rights reserved. This material may be used by individuals for instructional purposes but not sold. Please inform the author if you use it at